Introduction of Steam Locomotive

Introduction to the principle of running

Introduction to the principle of running
The steam locomotive uses fuel such as diesel or coal to heat the water in the boiler to generate steam. Then, the power generated in the steam cylinder pushes the wheels forward through the connecting rod mechanism. The Alishan steam train travels in the mountains. To cope with the problem that more power is needed for climbing slopes and restrictions such small radius and tunnel space, its characteristics include the vertical steam cylinder, bevel gears, and retractable universal joint drives.
At present, the No. 31 and No. 25 steam locomotives running on the Alishan Railway were repaired and reused in 2004 and 2006 respectively. There were three key points for the recovery repair. First, the coal cabinet that stores the coal was changed to the generator room for power supply. Second, install an air compressor driven by the engine. Third, replace coal with diesel as fuel. The advantage is that it takes only 25 minutes to heat the boiler and raise the water vapor pressure up to 11 kg/sq-cm. The operating environment of the cab has been improved; the air pressure source required for braking is stable; the operating is simple; the coal storage site is not required anymore; the air pollution caused by burning coal and problems related to coal ash cleaning have been solved at the same time.

Principles of the operation of steam locomotives:

1. Heating boiler water to produce steam

The diesel is burned by means of jet ignition to generate heat energy, which is transmitted through the boiler wall to raise the temperature of the water inside the boiler. Then the flame enters the smoke chamber through the smoke tubes and is discharged to the atmosphere through the chimney. There are 88 smoke tubes immersed in the boiler water, running through the boiler body horizontally. In addition, the smoke tubes are hollow and can allow the heat and exhaust gas generated by the combustion of coal in the fire box to pass through, and widely convey heat energy to the water in the boiler. After the temperature of the water in the boiler reaches the boiling point, the high-pressure steam is generated, which then enters the steam dome at the top of the boiler for separating the purer pressure steam from the high-pressure steam. The steam valve is operated by the driver, and the high-pressure steam is sent to the cylinder through the pipeline as a power source to push the piston.

2.Power transmission mechanism

In order to effectively transmit the power generated by the steam to the driving wheel, the power from the piston directly pushes the crosshead, the connecting rod, the crankshaft, the telescopic transmission joint, the gear and the wheel by the relevant connecting rod mechanism.

3.Other ancillary equipment

Sanding device
Install one sanding device at the top of the boiler and one at the front of the water tank. When the wheel is slipping, sanding can improve the friction between wheel and track and allows the vehicle to continue to travel.
Safety valve
The setting pressure is about 12 kg/cm2. If the vapor pressure is too strong, the valve will automatically open and the steam will be sprayed from the valve port to ensure that the vapor pressure is within the safe range.
It is installed at the top of the boiler, and uses steam to discharge waste heat. The pipeline is connected to the preheater to heat the cold water going into the boiler from the water tank, so that the boiler water temperature will not drop too much.
The driver operates the lever to sound the whistle before starting the train or there is any trouble ahead of the train.
Reversing gear
The driver operates the reversing gear to allow the train to move forward or backward.
Steam air compressor and air storage reservoir
Operated by the driver, the compressor is actuated by the pressure of the vapor, and the compressed air is sent to the air storage reservoir and used for braking.
Braking system and brake pipe
The driver operates the brake handle to control the brake by increasing or decreasing the air pressure in the brake pipe, the single valve controls the brake of the locomotive itself, and the automatic driver's brake valve controls the brake of the train.
Steam valve
The driver operates the valve switch handle to let the steam go into the cylinder to push the piston, generating power and starting the train.